Cardiovascular diseases cvd in the case of atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease biomarkers that may be elevated as a consequence of brain injury may not be detectable in large amounts in the peripheral circulation because of the blood brain barrier it is challenging to identify diagnostic biomarkers in the peripheral blood within 3 hours of stroke onset the critical time window for . Nonglycemic biomarkers such as blood lipids and markers of kidney dysfunction cardiac injury hemodynamic stress inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis have a role in cardiovascular disease prognostication several novel and emerging biomarkers are under investigation and hold promise for future clinical use. Further scientific advances have led to the discovery of a broad range of novel biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risks including b type natriuretic peptide bnp n terminal prohormone bnp nt probnp troponin c reactive protein crp myeloperoxidase mpo lipoprotein associated phospholipase a2 fibrinogen tmao and cystatin c. Our goals were to highlight recent advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and the use of current and novel biomarkers including proteomic metabolomic genomic and epidemiologic approaches in the diagnosis risk assessment treatment and management of patients
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